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Its "inventors" followed diverse paths, which can be ordered from a systematic viewpoint in the following way:1. The instruments combine characteristics of the guitar zither without fingerboard, but also with the possibility of stroking individual strings.

Zithers without fingerboards having a chromatic or partially diatonic string order from the lowest to the highest string (one- or two-course); these instruments can play simple melodies or, with the additional help of grip and key fittings as on the autoharp, chords (see below); 2. c''') Leipzig, Museum of Musical Instruments of the University of Leipzig, Inv.-No. 3, 6, 9-11) and were played in the traditional way for a zither, with fingers and a thumb plectrum. A short violin bow, only about 55 cm in length and used with the right hand, is used to play the melody strings.

Max Kleiber of Markneukirchen patented in 1900 a lyre zither, a "guitar zither with two harp buttons joined by columns" (D. As a rule, the body was stained and lacquered black, as well as decorated with richly coloured transfer illustrations or with ornamentation in coloured ink. of the trading company Gebrder Schuster, Markneukirchen ca. 128f.; sales catalogue of the company Ernst Hess Nachf., Klingenthal ca 1937, pp. XXXV of the trading company Meinel & Herold, Klingenthal ca. It is considered an invention of Carl Friedrich Zimmermann, who had immigrated from Germany in 1864. This notation system, or better, playing aid, was to function without the traditional notational forms in order to also enable those who could not read musical scores to play. 60200 of 30 April 1891.) The score sheet is pushed between two ridges under the strings and is provided with written notes which are so arranged that, when the score sheet is placed in the correct location, it lies under the appropriate strings in order as they are to be played in the notation."The principle of notation is identical: the progression of the melody is represented as a curve that shows, at places marked by notes, where the strings are to be pressed.

Sales catalogue of the company Edmund Paulus, Markneukirchen um 1930, p. In Germany such instruments were built by Theodor Meinhold in Klingenthal, Paul Thierfeld in Johanngeorgenstadt and the Mller Company, among others (cf. In 1891 Theodor Meinhold of Klingenthal invented the so-called " Unterlegbltter" ("underlying sheets"). The accompanying chords are marked with numbers that appear next to each notehead.

In this, musical instrument construction is a mediator between the determinants of the whole system, which include the elements: musical praxis, "postulate" (meaning all expectations and demands related to sound and playing technique), technical realization of the postulate and sound reality.

Both aspects, the economic and the ideological, form in their mutual dependence the basis for the emergence of a new form of music-making practice and of a specific understanding of folk music that changed earlier conceptualizations.

The general rise of large-scale industrial production during the second half of the 19th century also extended to the manufacture of musical instruments.

In 1901 the Berlin factory employed 31 workers and the factory in New Jersey many more than this (cf. 11), distributed also by a German-American concern, reduced musical demands to an even lower degree. 101661 of 3 September 1897: Alwin Eichler zither string order in chordal groups; cf. In spite of the vehement and understandable rejection of these instruments by traditional zither players, the guitar zithers enjoyed wide distribution. The instruments were manufactured in great numbers. In 1925 the Clemens Neuber Company of Klingenthal received a designation of "Gebrauchsmusterschutz" ("German Registered Design") for a newly developed so called violin zither (D. The apparent advantage of dispensing with stopping techniques must be compensated by the more difficult mastery of striking a much larger number of strings.

This zither instrument, distributed by the German representative of the Aeolian Company of New York, Alwin Eichler in Berlin, dispensed entirely with melody strings and was made purely as an accompanying instrument, with five or six chords (D. In addition, they were subjected to numerous modifications and "improvements", such as their development to a through the doubling of melody strings, according to the mandolin model. The design of the instruments was carried out in an empirical way, not simply on a theoretical basis. 5) in its original form a zither without fingerboard having a "Manualaufsatz" (manual box) or a "Abgreifeinrichtung" (damper bass controlled by keys) was patented in 1882 in the United States. In order to solve this problem both in terms of practical playing and of notation, a special notation system was applied.the industrially manufacture of musical instruments and 2.